Tuesday, 30 October 2012

Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

Cell Theory:

  • Cell is as fundamental to the living organisms.
  • Cells are an organisms's basic units of structure and function.
  • All living organisms are made up of cells.
  • The cells is derived from other cells by division.
  • Cells contain genetic material of an organism which is passed from parent to daughter cell.
  • All metabolic reaction take place within the cell.

Prokaryotic cells:

  • Pro:before, karyon: nucleus.
  • Included all bacteria and cynobacteria.
  • Small cells. 0.5-10.0 mm.
  • DNA not enclosed by nucelar membrane.
  • Genetic material is circular DNA.
  • Cytoplasm contain few organelles.
  • Ribosomes are present but small compared to Eukaryote.
  • Cell wall are rigid structure, made up of polysaccharide (peptidolycan) with amino acid.

Eukaryotic cells:

  • Eu: true, karyon: nucleus
  • e.g. animal and plant cells.
  • Have chromosomes surrounded by well-defined nuclear membrane.
  • Linear strands of DNA contained in nucleus.
  • Contain many organelles(mitochondria, lysosome...)
  • Flagella and cilia, if present, will construct from a system of  9+2 microtubules.
  • Cell wall: contains cellulose(plant) and chitin(fungi).

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